sábado, 20 de novembro de 2010

Possessive Pronouns and verb "To Have"

In Hebrew the possessive pronoun agrees with the possesor, and comes after the noun.

- My, Mine - שלי (sheli)     

- Your, Yours [singular]
(m) שלך (shelkha)
  (f) שלך (shelakh)

- His - שלו (shelo)              

- Her, Hers - שלה (shela)    

- Our, Ours - שלנו (shelanu)

- Your, Yours [plural]
(m) שלכם (shelakhem)
  (f) שלכן (shelakhen)

- Their, Theirs
(m) שלהם (shelahem)
  (f) שלהן (shelahen)

Possessive pronouns come after the noun (which also comes with the definitive article). The result will be הספר שלי - which literally translates "the book my/mine".

My father -  אבא שלי (aba sheli) or Avi [aba + sheli] Possessive Pronouns

my book - הספר שלי (hasefer sheli)
It's theirs - זה שלהם (ze shelahem)

The equivalent of the English verb "To have" is expressed by using the word "yesh"(there is/are). The pattern is demonstrated in the following examples by changing the appropriate possessive pronoun:

1) Positive Statement
    yesh li (“There is to me” or, in proper English grammar, “I have”) - יש לי
                    yesh lekha (you[m]) - יש לך
                     yesh lakh (you[f]) - יש לך
                          yesh lanu (we) - יש לנו
yesh lakhem (you[plural m])- יש לכם
 yesh lakhen (you pl [f]) - יש לכן
yesh lahem (they [m]) - יש להם
yesh lahen (they[f]) - יש להן

2) Negative statement
by changing "Yesh" for "Eyn" + appropriate possessive pronoun.
ex: Eyn li - אין לי (“I don't have”)

       I have a house [yesh li bayit] - יש לי בית
 I have no money (lit. silver) [eyn li kesef] - אין לי כסף
There is no time [eyn zman] - אין זמן

מה יש בדירה של דויד؟
What is in David's apartament?/What does his apartment have? [ma yesh badira shel david?]

יש שם שלושה חדרים גדולים, אבל אין מרפסת. יש גם שני סטודנטים אמריקאים
 There are three large rooms, but no balcony. There are also two American students. [yesh sham shlosha 7adarim gdolim, aval eyn mirpeset. yesh gam shney studentim ameriqayim.]

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